Pizzle Disease

Protocol

Acknowledgement and thanks to the hereunder mentioned Veterinaries for compiling this Protocol and all persons who attended the Workshop and contributed to the project.

Dr A J van Rooyen Steynsburg
Dr R Larson Graaff Reinet
Dr J Pienaar Beaufort West
Please Report All Cases To The Society Or To Your Veterinarian

In order to establish a record of progress and to endeavour to assist flocks with problems to eradicate the disease. We will appreciate input and reports from farmers and veterinaries when you try this protocol. We aim to eradicate this disease, and we need the assistance of every person involved in the industry.

Herewith the Pizzle Disease Protocol as discussed on 29th September 2003 at a workshop attended by the Council of the Dorper Breeders’ Society, Provincial Veterinary Services and Private Veterinaries.

A Flock Can Be Classified As Follows

Clean with no clinical cases or type 4 scars. Stable infected flock: Infected but few clinical cases. New additions to the flock become clinical cases. Unstable infected flock: Infected with active clinical cases.

1. Clean Flock

1.1) Only purchase “clean” rams

1.2) Apply trial-mating with 10 young ewes and keep separated for 30 days. Examine rams before adding to rest of ram flock.

1.3) Apply strict biological security measures:

1.3.1) Keep boundary fences in good repair and avoid contact with neighbouring, possibly infected, flocks.

1.3.2) Establish a quarantine station/section where additions can be observed for 30 days before incorporation with the flock. Apply strict tick and fly control.

1.3.3) Prevent mechanical contamination by handlers, shoes, feet, shearers, AI technicians, (artificial vaginal sheaths) from infected flocks.

1.4) In case of outbreak:

1.4.1) Drastic action such as isolation, slaughter, selling.

Or

1.4.2) Handle as Unstable infected flock.

1.4) In case of outbreak:

1.4.1) Drastic action such as isolation, slaughter, selling.

Or

1.4.2) Handle as Unstable infected flock.

2) Stable Infected Flock

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2.1) Rectify nutritional deficiencies, parasite problems and stress factors. Especially the, administration of Vit. A, D, E and Zinc before mating. Local area deficiencies must also be attended to.

2.2) Apply precautionary anti microbic treatment:

 

 

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2.2.1) Half a tube mastitis remedy in each sheath before mating. This may be repeated.
Or
2.2.2) Injecting with long acting Tetracycline Or Penicillin before mating. May be repeated.
Or
2.2.3) Injection plus local treatment with Acriflavine/Glycerin or tempered Iodine (Povodine) before mating.

 

2.3) Mark all rams after examination.

2.3.1) Green tags – no scars or history of pizzle disease.

2.3.2) Yellow tags – only one attack of pizzle disease.

2.3.3) Red tags – more than one attack of pizzle disease.

Control Programme

Phase 1 (5 years?)

1) Introduce a fixed mating period. 34 Days (2 cycles) 42 days, or 51 days (3 cycles)

2) Introduce strict biological security.

2.1) Keep boundary fences in good repair and avoid contact with infected flocks.

2.2) Establish a quarantine station/section where additions can be observed for 30 days before incorporation with the rest of the flock. Apply strict tick and fly control.

2.3) Prevention of mechanical contamination by handlers, feet, shoes, shearers, AI technicians (artificial vagina sheaths) from infected flocks.

3) No mating in biological security zone after mating period until minimum of 8 month cycle has been completed. A farming operation can install more than one section without contact between the different sections.

4) All dry ewes must be removed after sonar – scan and/or the last day of the lambing season.

5) Mark all rams after examination.

5.1) Green tag – no scars and no history of pizzle disease;

5.2) Yellow tag – only one episode of pizzle disease;

5.3) Red tag – more than one episode of pizzle disease.

6) Purchase only “clean” rams. Apply trial mating on 10 young ewes and keep isolated for 30 days. Examine rams before incorporation with rest of flock.

7) Keep prescribed records regarding individual rams, mating records and lambing results.

Phase 2

8) First certificate of compliance after 3 repeated clean mating seasons and possibly future blood test to identify infection.

9) Annual or bi-annual certificate of maintenance.

10) Acknowledgement and advantages of certified flocks.

3) Unstable Infected Flock

3.1) Rectify nutritional deficiencies parasite problems, and stress factors. Especially administration of Vit A, D, E and Zinc before mating. Local area deficiencies must also be attended to.

3.2) Treat acute cases. In all cases, the administration of Vit A, E and Zinc as well as Ammonium chloride can possibly expedite the healing process.

3.2.1) Type 1 scar: inject with an anti- microbic substance with proven effectiveness against Mycoplasm spp. Advocin, Baytril, Tylan.

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3.2.2) Type 2 scar: Treat and return to flock when healed. Inject with long acting tetracycline or penicillin Optional: Repeat with further two injections – in other words eight days antibiotic coverage Optional: Sheath treatment with acriflavine/glycerine or tempered Iodine (Povodine). Handle penis and sheath little as possible. Disinfect hands and apparatus between cases.

3.2.3) Type 3 scar can be treated as type 2 scar but will usually have to be culled

4) Mark All Rams After Examination

4.3.1) Green ear tag – no scar or history of pizzle disease.

4.3.2) Yellow tag – only one episode of pizzle disease.

4.3.3) Red tag – more than one episode of pizzle disease.